14. us-präsident

14. us-präsident

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After his visit home, and while en route back to France, Wilson suffered an illness; the ensuing months brought a decline in health and in power and prestige.

On arrival, it was immediately clear the conference had struggled in his absence—Col. Wilson very reluctantly accepted these amendments, explaining why he later was more inflexible in the Senate treaty negotiations.

Though his symptoms receded within a couple of days, those around him noticed a distinct, lasting deterioration. Wilson was indifferent to the issue, but acceded to strong opposition from Australia and Britain.

For his peace-making efforts, Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. There can seldom have been a statesman of the first rank more incompetent than the President in the agilities of the council chamber.

The chances were less than favorable for ratification of the treaty by a two-thirds vote of the Republican Senate. Public opinion was mixed, with intense opposition from most Republicans, Germans, and Irish Catholic Democrats.

In numerous meetings with Senators, Wilson discovered opposition had hardened. Despite his weakened physical condition Wilson decided to barnstorm the Western states, scheduling 29 major speeches and many short ones to rally support.

She attempted an intolerable thing, and she must be made to pay for the attempt. Wilson had a series of debilitating strokes and had to cut short his trip on September 26, He became an invalid in the White House, closely monitored by his wife, who insulated him from negative news and downplayed for him the gravity of his condition.

It proved possible to build a majority for the treaty in the Senate, but the two-thirds coalition needed to ratify was insurmountable. The largest bloc—Lodge and the Republicans—wanted a treaty with reservations, especially on Article X, which empowered the League of Nations to make war without a vote by the United States Congress.

Finally, a bipartisan group of 13 " irreconcilables " opposed a treaty in any form. A plan to form a commission for the purpose was abandoned in the face of Republican control of the Senate, which complicated the appointment of commission members.

Instead, Wilson favored the prompt dismantling of wartime boards and regulatory agencies. A wartime bubble in prices of farmland burst, leaving many farmers deeply in debt after they purchased new land.

There were social tensions as veterans tried to find jobs, and existing workers struggled to protect their jobs, as well as to gain better wages and conditions.

Major strikes in the steel, coal, and meatpacking industries disrupted the economy in As the election of approached, Wilson momentarily imagined that a deadlocked Democratic convention might nominate him for a third term with a campaign focused on the League of Nations.

No one around the President adequately clarified for him that he was too incapacitated, had insufficient support, and that the League defeat was irreversible.

Wilson frequently intervened in Latin American affairs, saying in Additionally, American troops in Haiti—under the command of the federal government—forced the Haitian legislature to elect as president a pro-Western candidate who was favored by Wilson though less popular among the Haitian citizenry.

The occupation lasted until , and was notorious for its brutality against those in the resistance. After Russia left World War I following the Bolshevik Revolution of , the Allies sent troops there to prevent a German or Bolshevik takeover of allied-provided weapons, munitions and other supplies previously shipped as aid to the pre-revolutionary government.

Though specifically instructed not to engage the Bolsheviks, the U. Revolutionaries in Russia resented the United States intrusion.

Robert Maddox wrote, "The immediate effect of the intervention was to prolong a bloody civil war, thereby costing thousands of additional lives and wreaking enormous destruction on an already battered society.

In , Wilson guided American foreign policy to "acquiesce" in the Balfour Declaration without supporting Zionism in an official way.

Wilson expressed sympathy for the plight of Jews, especially in Poland and France. In May , Wilson sent a long-deferred proposal to Congress to have the U.

Hovannisian states that Wilson "made all the wrong arguments" for the mandate and focused less on the immediate policy than on how history would judge his actions: In Pueblo, Colorado , on September 25, , he collapsed and never fully recovered.

On October 2, , he suffered a serious stroke, leaving him paralyzed on his left side, along with blindness in his left eye and partial vision in his right eye.

His wife Edith and his aide Joe Tumulty were said to have helped a journalist, Louis Seibold , present a false account of an interview with the President.

He was insulated by his wife, who selected matters for his attention and delegated others to his cabinet. Wilson temporarily resumed a perfunctory attendance at cabinet meetings.

No one close to him, including his wife, his physician, or personal assistant, was willing to admit he was unable to perform the duties of the presidency.

Kennedy had been left in a permanent vegetative state on account of his brain injuries, the 25th Amendment was ratified in to allow the voluntary or forcible replacement of an unable or unwilling incumbent.

Prohibition developed as an unstoppable reform during the war, but Wilson played a minor role in its passage. By January 16, , the Eighteenth Amendment had been ratified by 36 of the 48 states it needed.

Wilson felt Prohibition was unenforceable, but his veto of the Volstead Act was overridden by Congress. But, the consumption of alcohol was never prohibited, and individuals could maintain a private stock that existed before Prohibition went into effect.

Wilson moved his private supply of alcoholic beverages to the wine cellar of his Washington residence after his term of office ended.

Speakeasies thrived in cities, towns and rural areas. The white South was the main center of opposition—only Arkansas allowed women voting rights.

Wilson did keep in close touch with the much larger and more moderate suffragists of the National American Woman Suffrage Association.

He continued to hold off until he was sure the Democratic Party in the North was supportive; the referendum in New York State in favor of suffrage proved decisive for him and he now came out strongly in support of national suffrage in a January speech to Congress.

Applauding the vitality of women during the First World War, he asked Congress, "We have made partners of the women in this war Shall we admit them only to a partnership of suffering and sacrifice and toil and not to a partnership of privilege and right?

The most important foreign policy advisor and confidant was "Colonel" Edward M. After the end of his second term in , Wilson and his wife moved from the White House to an elegant town house in the Embassy Row Kalorama section of Washington, D.

Wilson was one of only two U. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt was the first to have served as president of the American Historical Association.

Wilson experienced more success with his return to writing, and he published short works on the international impact of the American Revolution and the rise of totalitarianism.

He also campaigned for Democratic candidates in the elections , and he hinted to friends that he might pursue a third term in the presidential election.

On November 10, , Wilson made a short Armistice Day radio speech from the library of his home, his last national address.

The following day he spoke briefly from the front steps to more than 20, well wishers gathered outside the house. On February 3, , Wilson died at home of a stroke and other heart-related problems at age Wilson left the home and much of the contents to the National Trust for Historic Preservation to be made into a museum honoring her husband.

The rest he left to Edith as a life estate with the provision that at her death, his daughters would divide the estate among themselves.

Wilson was the first Southerner to be elected president since Zachary Taylor in While president of Princeton University , Wilson had discouraged blacks from applying for admission, preferring to keep the peace among white students and alumni.

But in accord with military policy from the Civil War through the Second World War, they segregated them into all-black units with white officers, and kept the great majority out of combat.

Du Bois —a leader of the NAACP who had campaigned for Wilson believing he was a "liberal southerner"—was offered an Army commission in charge of dealing with race relations; DuBois accepted, but he failed his Army physical and did not serve.

The film, while revolutionary in its cinematic technique, glorified the Ku Klux Klan and portrayed blacks as uncouth and uncivilized. In the villages the Negroes were the office holders, men who knew none of the uses of authority, except its insolences", another claiming that Congressional leaders of that time wanted to "put the white South under the heel of the black South", and a third suggesting that the Klan grew out of "the white men of the South being aroused by a mere instinct of self-preservation".

After seeing the film, Wilson felt betrayed by Dixon, and did not like or endorse the film. Wilson tried to stop its showing during the World War. In addition, photographs became required for all new federal job applicants, allowing racial discrimination in the merit-based career civil service.

When a delegation of black professionals from the National Independent Political League, led by newspaper editor William Monroe Trotter , protested the discriminatory actions, Wilson told them "segregation is not a humiliation but a benefit, and ought to be so regarded by you gentlemen", explained he was trying to "reduce friction," and that he "sincerely believe[d] it to be in their interest".

Trotter countered by arguing that it was "untenable Wilson rebuked him, stating that if the League wanted to meet with him again, "it must have another spokesman.

Your manner offends me". Trotter was ordered to leave the White House. Employees who were downgraded were transferred to the dead letter office , where they did not interact with the public.

Although Villard subsequently corresponded with and met with Wilson about the issue, no change in policy was forthcoming.

The largest denomination of U. The college has placed a marker on the building, renamed Woodrow Wilson Hall, commemorating the home.

It was declared a National Historic Landmark in In , Darryl F. Zanuck of 20th Century Fox produced a film titled Wilson. Post Office issued the first postage stamp honoring the late president.

Woodrow Wilson was also an accomplished author and scholar, having written numerous books and essays. Wilson tips his hat as he exits the White House on his way to a parade along Pennsylvania Avenue From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Woodrow wilson. For other people named Woodrow Wilson, see Woodrow Wilson disambiguation.

Daughters Jessie and Margaret. William Jennings Bryan shifted his support from Clark to Wilson and ushered in the nomination.

Presidency of Woodrow Wilson. United States home front during World War I. Paris Peace Conference, List of federal judges appointed by Woodrow Wilson.

List of memorials to Woodrow Wilson. From Washington to Clinton". Political Science Quarterly Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Retrieved September 11, The Influence of Environment". Retrieved September 2, The Years of Preparation. Princeton University Press — via Google Books.

March 1, — via Google Books. Woodrow Wilson and the Roots of Modern Liberalism. Retrieved March 22, Retrieved February 27, In Search of Woodrow Wilson: Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace".

Sinclair Company, , p. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education The Academic Years ; Walworth v. The Academic Years , — Retrieved November 1, Gould, Four Hats in the Ring: Archived from the original on September 13, A Companion to Woodrow Wilson.

Grantham, "Southern congressional leaders and the new freedom, — The New Freedom pp. The Centennial Review , 24 2 pp.

Archived from the original on February 28, An Analysis of the Interest Group Hypothesis". Ruling Elder, Spiritual President.

Edith Bolling Galt Wilson: The Struggle for Neutrality, The Life of Colonel Edward M. March 5, — via Google News. June , pp.

The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection. The Anarchist Background , Princeton: A Study in National Hysteria, — , pp. War, the American State, and Politics since Department of State Office of the Historian.

Japan, Race, and Equality: The Racial Equality Proposal of Addresses of President Wilson May—November , vol.

Nobel Media AB Scott Berg, Wilson , pp. The Cold War and After: History, Theory, and the Logic of International Politics.

The Fight Against the League of Nations. University Press of Kentucky. Encyclopedia of the American Presidency p.

Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Invasion and Occupation of Haiti, —34". United States Department of the State. Retrieved January 14, Kennan , Russia Leaves the War , p.

Presidio Press, , Urofsky, American Zionism from Herzl to the Holocaust , ch. The Republic of Armenia, Vol. Between Crescent and Sickle, Partition and Sovietization.

University of California Press. Timeline for Hypertension Treatment History , accessed September 14, During his presidency, he had repeated episodes of unexplained arm and hand weakness, and his retinal arteries were said to be abnormal on fundoscopic examination.

He developed severe headaches, diplopia double vision , and evanescent weakness of the left arm and leg. In retrospect, physicians have said that those problems likely represented the effects of cerebral transient ischemic attacks.

Weinstein EA, Woodrow Wilson: The Year of the Six Presidents. Johns Hopkins University Press, Presidential Disability New York: Would Wilson Condone Speakeasies?

Prohibition in Washington, D. Retrieved March 4, Lunardini and Thomas J. Knock, "Woodrow Wilson and woman suffrage: A new look", Political Science Quarterly pp.

Congressional Research Service reports. Journal of Monetary Economics. House", Presidential Studies Quarterly 24 1: Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved November 10, Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician , p.

Archived from the original on November 25, Real Life at the White House , p. Archived from the original on May 5, The Journal of Negro History.

A Theory of Oppression. John Milton Cooper Jr. Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace. Longmans, Green, and Company.

Cooke, The All-Americans at War: Retrieved June 1, The New Freedom 2: Retrieved 10 November New Jersey Hall of Fame.

Retrieved February 11, Bibliography of Woodrow Wilson. Retrieved March 20, Wilson , full-scale scholarly biography Blum, John. Woodrow Wilson — ; short scholarly biography Cooper, John Milton.

Woodrow Wilson and Theodore Roosevelt dual scholarly biography. The Wilson White House. A Reference History pp. The Road to the White House , first volume of standard biography to ; Wilson: The New Freedom ; Wilson: The Struggle for Neutrality: Campaigns for Progressivism and Peace: Princeton to the Presidency Miller, Kristie.

Woodrow Wilson and the World He Made. Wilson and the Peacemakers: World Statesman Clements, Kendrick A. Saudiyah, Barzalla Bridge, Srinagar, Kashmir: The First Cold War: The Legacy of Woodrow Wilson in U.

To End All Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, — standard political history of the era online Saunders, Robert M. Beliefs and Behavior Tucker, Robert W.

Woodrow Wilson and the Great War: Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. XVII 3, Spring issue. The Princeton University Library Chronicle.

Primary sources August Heckscher , ed. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Archived from the original on November 1, Woodrow Wilson as I Know Him.

Wilson, Edith Bolling Why We Are at War. Articles related to Woodrow Wilson. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B.

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In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource. This page was last edited on 1 February , at There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, and the exact powers to be given the central government.

Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, , the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power.

It could make its own resolutions, determinations, and regulations, but not any laws, and could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens.

The members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator.

Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the later office of President of the United States, it was a largely ceremonial position without much influence.

In , the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies. With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs.

They witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates , and their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest.

Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in , Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September in Annapolis, Maryland , with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms.

When the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.

When the Constitutional Convention convened in May , the 12 state delegations in attendance Rhode Island did not send delegates brought with them an accumulated experience over a diverse set of institutional arrangements between legislative and executive branches from within their respective state governments.

Most states maintained a weak executive without veto or appointment powers, elected annually by the legislature to a single term only, sharing power with an executive council, and countered by a strong legislature.

The Presentment Clause requires that any bill passed by Congress must be presented to the president before it can become law.

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:. The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.

Congress could then repass that particular item. If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.

City of New York , U. Supreme Court ruled such a legislative alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional. The power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, but the president has ultimate responsibility for the direction and disposition of the military.

The exact degree of authority that the Constitution grants to the President as Commander in Chief has been the subject of much debate throughout history, with Congress at various times granting the President wide authority and at others attempting to restrict that authority.

The amount of military detail handled personally by the President in wartime has varied dramatically. In , Washington used his constitutional powers to assemble 12, militia to quell the Whiskey Rebellion —a conflict in western Pennsylvania involving armed farmers and distillers who refused to pay excise tax on spirits.

According to historian Joseph Ellis , this was the "first and only time a sitting American president led troops in the field", though James Madison briefly took control of artillery units in defense of Washington D.

The present-day operational command of the Armed Forces is delegated to the Department of Defense and is normally exercised through the Secretary of Defense.

The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces Pursuant to the War Powers Resolution , Congress must authorize any troop deployments longer than 60 days, although that process relies on triggering mechanisms that have never been employed, rendering it ineffectual.

The constitution also empowers the President to propose and chiefly negotiate agreements between the United States and other countries.

Such agreements become, upon receiving the advice and consent of the U. Senate by a two-thirds majority vote , become binding with the force of federal law.

General Services Administration , U. The president is the head of the executive branch of the federal government and is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed".

Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: Ambassadors , members of the Cabinet , and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the " advice and consent " of a majority of the Senate.

When the Senate is in recess for at least ten days, the president may make recess appointments. The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.

Generally, a president may remove executive officials purely at will. To manage the growing federal bureaucracy, presidents have gradually surrounded themselves with many layers of staff, who were eventually organized into the Executive Office of the President of the United States.

Additionally, the president possesses the power to manage operations of the federal government through issuing various types of directives, such as presidential proclamation and executive orders.

When the president is lawfully exercising one of the constitutionally conferred presidential responsibilities, the scope of this power is broad.

Moreover, Congress can overturn an executive order though legislation e. The president also has the power to nominate federal judges , including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.

However, these nominations require Senate confirmation. Securing Senate approval can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.

When nominating judges to U. Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves. Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon a month after taking office.

Bill Clinton pardoned Patty Hearst on his last day in office, as is often done just before the end of a second presidential term, but not without controversy.

Historically, two doctrines concerning executive power have developed that enable the president to exercise executive power with a degree of autonomy.

The first is executive privilege , which allows the president to withhold from disclosure any communications made directly to the president in the performance of executive duties.

When Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in United States v.

Nixon , U. When President Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal , the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. Jones , U.

These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid, although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.

Additionally, federal courts have allowed this privilege to radiate outward and protect other executive branch employees, but have weakened that protection for those executive branch communications that do not involve the president.

The state secrets privilege allows the president and the executive branch to withhold information or documents from discovery in legal proceedings if such release would harm national security.

Precedent for the privilege arose early in the 19th century when Thomas Jefferson refused to release military documents in the treason trial of Aaron Burr and again in Totten v.

United States 92 U. Supreme Court until United States v. Therefore, the president cannot directly introduce legislative proposals for consideration in Congress.

For example, the president or other officials of the executive branch may draft legislation and then ask senators or representatives to introduce these drafts into Congress.

The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally or statutorily mandated, periodic reports to Congress.

Additionally, the president may attempt to have Congress alter proposed legislation by threatening to veto that legislation unless requested changes are made.

In the 20th century, critics charged that too many legislative and budgetary powers that should have belonged to Congress had slid into the hands of presidents.

As the head of the executive branch, presidents control a vast array of agencies that can issue regulations with little oversight from Congress.

If both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for Congress to adjourn.

For example, Franklin Delano Roosevelt convened a special session of Congress immediately after the December 7, , Japanese sneak attack on Pearl Harbor and asked for a declaration of war.

As head of state, the president can fulfill traditions established by previous presidents. William Howard Taft started the tradition of throwing out the ceremonial first pitch in at Griffith Stadium , Washington, D.

Every president since Taft, except for Jimmy Carter , threw out at least one ceremonial first ball or pitch for Opening Day, the All-Star Game , or the World Series , usually with much fanfare.

The President of the United States has served as the honorary president of the Boy Scouts of America since the founding of the organization.

Other presidential traditions are associated with American holidays. Hayes began in the first White House egg rolling for local children. Truman administration, every Thanksgiving the president is presented with a live domestic turkey during the annual National Thanksgiving Turkey Presentation held at the White House.

Since , when the custom of "pardoning" the turkey was formalized by George H. Bush , the turkey has been taken to a farm where it will live out the rest of its natural life.

Many outgoing presidents since James Buchanan traditionally give advice to their successor during the presidential transition. During a state visit by a foreign head of state, the president typically hosts a State Arrival Ceremony held on the South Lawn , a custom begun by John F.

Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.

One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office".

Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT [71] and wrote that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.

Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies".

Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets three qualifications for holding the presidency.

To serve as president, one must:. A person who meets the above qualifications would, however, still be disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:.

The most common previous profession of U. Nominees participate in nationally televised debates , and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the debates.

Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions. Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.

The president is elected indirectly by the voters of each state and the District of Columbia through the Electoral College, a body of electors formed every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president to concurrent four-year terms.

As prescribed by the Twelfth Amendment, each state is entitled to a number of electors equal to the size of its total delegation in both houses of Congress.

Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment provides that the District of Columbia is entitled to the number it would have if it were a state, but in no case more than that of the least populous state.

On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, the electors convene in their respective state capitals and in Washington D.

They typically vote for the candidates of the party that nominated them. While there is no constitutional mandate or federal law requiring them to do so, the District of Columbia and 30 states have laws requiring that their electors vote for the candidates to whom they are pledged.

The votes of the electors are opened and counted during a joint session of Congress, held in the first week of January.

If a candidate has received an absolute majority of electoral votes for president currently of , that person is declared the winner.

Otherwise, the House of Representatives must meet to elect a president using a contingent election procedure in which representatives, voting by state delegation, with each state casting a single vote, choose between the top electoral vote-getters for president.

For a candidate to win, he or she must receive the votes of an absolute majority of states currently 26 of A 73—73 electoral vote tie between Thomas Jefferson and fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr in the election of necessitated the first.

Conducted under the original procedure established by Article II, Section 1, Clause 3 of the Constitution, which stipulates that if two or three persons received a majority vote and an equal vote, the House of Representatives would choose one of them for president; the runner up would become Vice President.

Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the election. Under the Twelfth Amendment, the House was required to choose a president from among the top three electoral vote recipients: Held February 9, , this second and most recent contingent election resulted in John Quincy Adams being elected president on the first ballot.

Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment , the four-year term of office for both the president and vice president begins at noon on January As a result of the date change, the first term —37 of both men had been shortened by 43 days.

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is required to recite the presidential oath of office , found in Article II, Section 1, Clause 8.

This is the only component in the inauguration ceremony mandated by the Constitution:. I do solemnly swear or affirm that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

Presidents have traditionally placed one hand upon a Bible while taking the oath, and have added "So help me God" to the end of the oath. When the first president, George Washington, announced in his Farewell Address that he was not running for a third term, he established a "two-terms then out" precedent.

Precedent became tradition after Thomas Jefferson publicly embraced the principle a decade later during his second term, as did his two immediate successors, James Madison and James Monroe.

Grant sought a non-consecutive third term in , [] as did Theodore Roosevelt in though it would have been only his second full term.

In , after leading the nation through the Great Depression , Franklin Roosevelt was elected to a third term, breaking the self-imposed precedent.

Four years later, with the U. Bush , and Barack Obama. Both Jimmy Carter and George H. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.

Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it. Johnson , having held the presidency for one full term in addition to only 14 months of John F.

Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows for the removal of high federal officials, including the president, from office for " treason , bribery , or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives: Andrew Johnson in , and Bill Clinton in Both were acquitted by the senate: Johnson by one vote, and Clinton by 17 votes.

Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in ; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Succession to or vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: Deaths have occurred a number of times, resignation has occurred only once, and removal from office has never occurred.

Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president , by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.

The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties upon transmitting, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.

Such a transfer of power has occurred on three occasions: Ronald Reagan to George H. Bush once, on July 13, , and George W. Bush to Dick Cheney twice, on June 29, , and on July 21, Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment , the vice president, in conjunction with a majority of the Cabinet , may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president by transmitting a written declaration to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate that the president is incapacitated —unable to discharge their presidential powers and duties.

If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.

If the vice president and Cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.

The Cabinet currently has 15 members, of which the Secretary of State is first in line; the other Cabinet secretaries follow in the order in which their department or the department of which their department is the successor was created.

Those department heads who are constitutionally ineligible to be elected to the presidency are also disqualified from assuming the powers and duties of the presidency through succession.

No statutory successor has yet been called upon to act as president. Throughout most of its history, politics of the United States have been dominated by political parties.

Political parties had not been anticipated when the U. Constitution was drafted in , nor did they exist at the time of the first presidential election in — Organized political parties developed in the U.

Those who supported the Washington administration were referred to as "pro-administration" and would eventually form the Federalist Party , while those in opposition joined the emerging Democratic-Republican Party.

Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency.

He was, and remains, the only U. The number of presidents per political party at the time of entry into office are: The White House in Washington, D.

The site was selected by George Washington, and the cornerstone was laid in Every president since John Adams in has lived there.

At various times in U. The federal government pays for state dinners and other official functions, but the president pays for personal, family, and guest dry cleaning and food.

A place of solitude and tranquility, the site has been used extensively to host foreign dignitaries since the s.

The primary means of long distance air travel for the president is one of two identical Boeing VC aircraft, which are extensively modified Boeing airliners and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board although any U.

Air Force aircraft the president is aboard is designated as "Air Force One" for the duration of the flight. In-country trips are typically handled with just one of the two planes, while overseas trips are handled with both, one primary and one backup.

The president also has access to smaller Air Force aircraft, most notably the Boeing C , which are used when the president must travel to airports that cannot support a jumbo jet.

Any civilian aircraft the president is aboard is designated Executive One for the flight. For short distance air travel, the president has access to a fleet of U.

Marine Corps helicopters of varying models, designated Marine One when the president is aboard any particular one in the fleet.

Flights are typically handled with as many as five helicopters all flying together and frequently swapping positions as to disguise which helicopter the president is actually aboard to any would-be threats.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car , which is an armored limousine designed to look like a Cadillac sedan, but built on a truck chassis.

The president also has access to two armored motorcoaches , which are primarily used for touring trips. The presidential plane, called Air Force One when the president is inside.

Marine One helicopter, when the president is aboard. Secret Service is charged with protecting the president and the first family.

As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies , their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.

Under the Former Presidents Act , all living former presidents are granted a pension, an office, and a staff.

The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval. Bush , and all subsequent presidents. Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office.

Grover Cleveland , whose bid for reelection failed in , was elected president again four years later in Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House: John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before that body first met.

Presidents may use their predecessors as emissaries to deliver private messages to other nations or as official representatives of the United States to state funerals and other important foreign events.

Bill Clinton has also worked as an informal ambassador, most recently in the negotiations that led to the release of two American journalists , Laura Ling and Euna Lee , from North Korea.

Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife Hillary on her and presidential bids and President Obama on his reelection campaign.

As of February there are four living former U. The most recent former president to die was George H. Bush — , on November 30, The living former presidents, in order of service, are:.

Every president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records, and other documents and materials.

Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration NARA ; the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.

There are also presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations and Universities of Higher Education, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum , which is run by the State of Illinois , the George W.

A number of presidents have lived for many years after leaving office, and several of them have personally overseen the building and opening of their own presidential libraries.

Some have even made arrangements for their own burial at the site. Several presidential libraries contain the graves of the president they document, including the Dwight D.

These gravesites are open to the general public. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the political talk radio channel, see P.

For other uses, see President of the United States disambiguation. For a list, see List of Presidents of the United States.

Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Green.

Powers of the President of the United States. Suffice it to say that the President is made the sole repository of the executive powers of the United States, and the powers entrusted to him as well as the duties imposed upon him are awesome indeed.

For further information, see List of people pardoned or granted clemency by the President of the United States. Imperial Presidency and Imperiled Presidency.

United States presidential primary , United States presidential nominating convention , United States presidential election debates , and United States presidential election.

Electoral College United States. United States presidential inauguration. Impeachment in the United States. List of residences of Presidents of the United States.

Transportation of the President of the United States. Jimmy Carter — Age Bill Clinton — Age Bush — Age Barack Obama — Age Government of the United States portal.

Phillips for the rapid transmission of press reports by telegraph. Truman ; Lyndon B. Johnson ; and Gerald Ford Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner.

Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.

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Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde er als damals jüngster Marine-Pilot über dem Südpazifik von den Japanern abgeschossen, musste sich mit dem Fallschirm retten und wurde per Zufall von einem U-Boot aufgelesen. Dadurch besitzt er sehr viel Macht. Bush musste in den vergangenen Jahren immer wieder im Krankenhaus behandelt werden. Obwohl selbst Sklavenbesitzer sprach er sich vehement gegen eine weitere Ausweitung der Sklaverei in den neu gewonnenen Westgebieten aus. Taft bemühte sich, die von seinem Vorgänger eingeleiteten Reformen zu konsolidieren. Er wird daher als Die wirtschaftliche Krise von schwächte die gesamte Weltwirtschaft. Konsequenzen der umstrittenen Wahl waren das wegweisende Urteil zur Verfassungsgerichtsbarkeit und der Verfassungszusatz zur Präsidentschaftswahl. Diese findet Anfang November statt.{/ITEM}

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